Ch4 intermolecular forces are London dispersion forces. because it is non polar molecules and it is made C-H bonds. but London dispersion forces is a weak forces.
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What is CH4 (methane)?
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula ch4. it is colourless compound. In ch4 ‘C’ is called carbon and ‘H’ is called hydrogen.
the chemical compound such as ch4 (methane) is not acidic. because hydrogen is boud directly to carbon. this compound ch4 (methane) is “neutral” as pH 7.
it is odourless, colourless, and flammable gas, it is mostly used for preparation of many organic chemical.
What is the intermolecular forces of Ch4?
CH4 intermolecular forces are the force in which it is made C-H bonds. it mean that, it is not bonds dipole. because the electronegativities of c and h are so close. therefore, C-H bonds is called non polar and it has no bonds dipole. ch4 molecules are non polar, it has not dipole-dipole intraction. it has only London dispersion forces. and ch4 molecules is not a dipole because there is no any negative pole and positive pole. due to this, it is not generated dipole dipole interaction.
the central atoms carbon has no enough electronegative to made strong intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonds. Carbon is not highly electronegative atoms that made a strongest bonds such as “hydrogen bonding “. Only few molecule are made hydrogen bonding. Such as nh3, h2O. but if molecules make N-H bonds or H-O bonds. hydrogen bonds are generated between molecules but if hydrogen are directly bound in nitrogen or oxygen, fluoride.
If you looked the structure of ch4. this molecules has no dipole because there is no any poles (negative pole or positive pole) due to this reason, dipole dipole interaction is not possible in this particular molecules (ch4).
According the above information, we can say that there is no any dipole dipole interaction occur in ch4 molecules. reson already discuss. and there is not good Electronegativity for making strong intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonds. Ch4 has only London dispersion forces.
there is not a big difference of Electronegativity between C and H. that why ch4 has not permanent dipoles dipole interaction. ch4 is a tetrahedral shape.
H – hydrogen.
C – carbon.
Methane is a non polar molecules, and methane has no ability to produce hydrogen bonding and dipole dipole forces. Methane molecules has only generated london dispersion forces. Ldf is a very weak types intermolecular forces. (these are the first point). and the second point is, this types of forces are occur mainly in non polar molecules.
What type of intermolecular forces in H2O and HF with resons?
Intermolecular forces in H2O
You know that, H2O is a polar molecules. and in many cases hydrogen bonding occur in polar molecules. let’s know with figure.
according to structure, one water molecules interact with another water molecules and it forms hydrogen bonds. it is strong intermolecular forces
Reason – You know that, oxygen is highly electronegative atoms compared with hydrogen. due to this reason, oxygen made partial negative charge and hydrogen made partial positive charge. and negative charge of oxygen are interact positive charge of hydrogen. As a resul it form hydrogen bonds. it mean hydrogen bonds occur between O-H bonds. as shown in figure.
therefore, we can say that, intermolecular forces in ch4 is hydrogen bonding.
Intermolecular forces in HF
You know that, hydrogen fluoride (HF) is a polar molecules. and dipole dipole interaction also occur in polar molecules. let’s know with figure.
According to the structure, there is a two dipole and both the dipole interact each other. and it form dipole dipole interaction.
Reason – fluoride is highly electronegative atoms compared with hydrogen. due to this, fluoride has partial negative charge and hydrogen has partial positive charge. and the fluoride has negative charge of one dipole interact with hydrogen has positive charge of another dipole. this type of interaction is known as dipole dipole interaction.
therefore, we can say that, intermolecular forces in ch4 is dipole dipole interaction.