Helo, reders welcome to “textilesgreen.in” today i m going to explain in details about “disperse dye, classification, properties, mechanism, dyeing process and also about disperse printing method”.

If you want to know in details about all information. then read complete article.

Because, i have made this guide to help you out.

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Disperse Dye

disperse dye
disperse dyeing process

Disperse dye are windly used for synthetic materials. disperse dye are easy to dyed of synthetic materials such as polyester, polyester/cotton, nylon and blend materials.

this dyes having low solubility and it is insoluble in water.

it give even dyeing on synthatic fibre. dye give good effect on method of polyester dyeing. and also give proper shade on polyester fibre, nylon, acrylic fibre and blend materials such as polyester/cotton and more.

some important chemicals are used in disperse dyeing such as dispersing agent because dispersing agent help for even or proper dyeing and it’s gives good shade.

this dye having very small dye molecules compare with other dyes. This is the reason its easy to diffuse in to the fibres. but it is not proper soluble in water.

when the dye is applied in the dye bath during dyeing then dispersion will found and they have free from ionized group. disperse dye have very small dye particals, this is the reason to diffuse easily in to fibre or surface of materials and its easy to pantrate. it gives good shade or colours.

this dye is also used for hydrophobic materials. hydrophobic materials such as polyester or blend or sometime nylon or acrylic dyeing is also done.

Read More: Azo dyes, azo dye test for aromatic amines?

Disperse dye Properties

this dye are insoluble in water.

this dye have free inozine group.

invironment behaviour is not good.

This dye is easy to diffuse in to fibre or materials because disperse dye having very small dye particals.

disperse dyeing process is not expansive it is very cheap process.

disperse dye colour produce bright and lighter shade.

this dye is easily dyed of synthetic materials and its easy to panatrate in to materials because dye have very small dye molecules so it is easily and proper diffuse on to the materials. and this way dyeing is completed.

light fastness properties is good.

dispersing agent is required for dyeing of synthetic materials with this dye.

Other material is also dyed with disperse dye such as nylon and acrylic materials.

carrier methods is applied for dyeing of synthetic materials.

this dye is also used for printing such as transfer printing and screen printing also.

disperse dyeing is done of synthetic materials with the help of three methods such as high temperature dyeing methods, thrmsole methods and carrier methods.

light fastness properties is good rating 4.5-5

this dye gives even dyeing for polyester or blend materials.

some important chemicals is required during dyeing Such as dispersing agent.

it increases solubility of the dye in water.

it also increase the rate of dye exhaustion power during dyeing. this reason it easily diffuse on to the materials and gives proper shade.

Disperse dye classification

• mono azo dyes

• di- azo dyes

• Anthraquinone dyes

Disperse dye Mechanism

disperse dye having small dye molecules it’s easily diffuse on to materials but dye is not properly swelling in case of synthetic materials. In case of polyester material it is not able to swelling proper on wetting because due to compact structure and polyester material is highly hydrophobic. But in case of cotton materials it is easily to swelling compare to the polyester.

Some special rearrangement is required in case of synthatic materials for proper swelling of dye or dyeing solutions. It is done by applying important chemicals or heat.

Chemical is used such as carriers. dye is properly panatrate on to materials when carrier is apply in dye bath it is easily help in panatration and give a even dyeing.

Dye molecules are properly held by hydrogen bonds and van der walls force.

Dye molecules are intrapped inside the polymers.

Some important chemicals are used in disperse dyeing.

levelling agent : the main functions of levelling agent is it hold the rate of the dyeing and it help properly to get even or uniform dyeing.

dispersing agent : the main function of dispersing agent is increased solubility of the dye in water. It also help in improve rate of dye exhaustion. It help to get proper dyeing.

disperse dye recipe

Dye 2%

Dispersing agent 2 g/l

Carrier, phenol 3g/l

Acetic Acid 1g/l

M:L 1:30 to 1:40

disperse dyeing process

There are three type of methods of disperse dyeing

• carrier dyeing

• hthp dyeing

• thermsol dyeing

These are the windly used in textile industry. Here I m going to explain about procedure or methods of carrier dyeing.


Step -1

First off all add uxlarries + water

Step – 2

Add materials + dye

Step – 3

add salt

Step – 4

Add alkali

Step – 5

Continue Dyeing for 60 mint at 60°C

Step – 6

Wash and dry

Eco-frinedly disperse dyes

1. This dye is exhaustion in between 90- 95℅. In case of disperse dye the amount of dye is discharged is very less compared to cotton dye.

2. In case of disperse dye, effluent containing disperse dye increases, TDS (5-7%).

3. The pH of effluent is about 6.

4. It is called reduction clearing process causes some load on TDS.

5. In case of disperse dyeing process, amount of water required is very less compared to Cotton dyeing process.

6. TDS (total dissolved solids) are solids in water that can pass through a filter of 0.45 micrometer.

Permissible limit of TDS = 2100 mg/l

Permissible limit of suspended solids = 100mg/l.

Eco-friendly disperse dyeing

1. First of all, don’t use banned azo/anthraquinone dyes.

2. Banned dyes such as, C.l disperse orange 76, and C.l disperse orange 37.

3. They are replacd by C.l disperse orange 29, 30, 44, 61.

4. Don’t use chlorinated carriers.

5. In this case, use of low liquor dyeing (1:3)

6. You try to do pad – thermofixation method.

7. Regular try to use solubilized disperse dyes (patented).

8. Use of green acid (formic acid) in place of acetic acid.

9. They contain Beta- sulfatoethyl sulfoxy group which is solubilize the disperse dyes when dissolved in water at pH 6, and this group is easy to hydrolyzed then dye become insoluble.

Hence, there is no need to add dispersing agent during dyeing.

Mono azo disperse dye


Disperse orange 5R : it is prepared by coupling p-nitroaniline with diphenyl amine.

Mono azo disperse dye
Mono azo disperse dye

in this reaction, first diazotisation with conc hcl/NaNo2 at 5°-10°C is carry out and then coupling is carried out with given product. after this, it is given disperse orange 5R as a final product.

Disperse dye uses

disperse dye have ability to dyed cellulose materials such as cotton.

disperse dye is easily dyed nylon materials.

this dye is windly used for hydrophobic materials such as polyester or man made fibers.

acrylic or polymide material is also dyed with disperse dye.

these dyes are use for dyeing in textile industry. these dyes are also dyed polyester/cotton blend fabric.

Disperse dye printing

Here, again i m going to explain about disperse printing.

this dyes is easily print on synthatic materials such as polyester. dye have ability to print all types of design on polyester with the help of heat (heat transfer printing). disperse dye have ability to print all type of design on blend materials. it gives full colour on the surface of the surface of the fabric. disperse dye have good ability to gives good effect in transfer print with the help of heat. disperse dye is given good print with the help of heat transfer print methods.


• disperse dye – 10-100 g/l

• water – 500 m/l

first of all, Mix together properly and then take indalca PA3R power and add in to 500ml water and mix together properly and then mix both solutions and prepared print past for printing.

Dyeing Methods

• first of all take a non absorbent paper.

• Place a design (whatever you want to print) with the print side against the materials and used the paper on top to avoid the ink transfer and then set the iron properly for blend materials such as polyester/cotton for 1-2 mint. abd then transfer is complete when the paper beings to yellow.