ethanol intermolecular forces are dipole dipole-dipole forces, dipole-dipole force is called hydrogen bonding.

Hello, reders welcome to another fresh article, here you understand about ethenol intermolecular forces.

Read More:- NH3 intermolecular forces?

What is ethanol?


ethanol is an organic chemical compound with the formula C2H6O. It is one type of colourless alcohol. ethanol is one type of industrial chemical compound in which it is use as a solvent. it is also called colourless liquid.

chemical name – ethanol

Formula – C2H5OH

Molar mass – 46.07 g/mole

Boiling point – 78.37° C

Melting point – 114.1°C

Density – 789 kg/m3

Intermolecular forces – dipole-dipole forces

Specific heat – 2.46 j/g°C

Read More:- hcl intermolecular forces?

ethanol intermolecular forces


ethanol intermolecular forces is a force in which it is created special class of dipole-dipole forces between molecules. this dipole-dipole forces is called hydrogen bonding.

ethanol is a polar molecules because it created dipole-dipole intraction. as you know, dipole-dipole forces occur polar molecules.

Hydrogen bonding is persent in ethanol molecules. because difference of electronegativity between molecules. ethanol are intracted partial positive charge on one molecules (hydrogen) to partial negative charge another molecules (oxygen).

Strongest intermolecular forces is persent in ethanol,

such as,

Hydrogen bonding;

First i will try to explain the basic concepts of “hydrogen bonding“.

You know that, hydrogen bonding occur if hydrogen are attached with electronegative atoms. but if electronegative atoms have,

  1. Small size
  2. loan pair

For example,

N, O & F

Where,

N – nitrogen, O – Oxygen & F – fluorine

if this type of electronegative atoms are attached with hydrogen. then hydrogen attraction electrons from electronegative atoms. It make small “sharing of electrons” between H-F , H-O and H-N. this sharing of electrons is called hydrogen bond.

hydrogen bonding is a strongest intermolecular forces compare with van der waals forces. But hydrogen bonding weaker then ionic or covalent bond.

Van der waals > hydrogen bond < ionic or covalent bond.

bond energy;

Van der waals – 8 kg/ mole

H-bonding – 8 – 42 kg/mole

ionic or covalent bonds – 200kj/mole.

hydrogen bonding between two ethanol molecules.

ethanol intermolecular forces
hydrogen bonding occur in ethanol
if you can see carefully, on the structure of both ethanol. here in thi structure, hydrogen bonding occur between two ethanol molecules.

In this case, Hydrogen has positive chare whereas oxygen has negative charge. After intraction it make hydrogen bond because sharing of electrons between hydrogen and oxygen.

Frequently Asked Question

1. What kind of bonding does ethanol have?

Ethanol create different type of bonding, such as

(a) bonds – H-C – non polar covalent bonds

(b) bonds – H-O & C-O are polar covalent bonds

(a) in this bonds, hydrogen are directly attachment to carbon in which it make non polar, they are weak intermolecular forces, because there are no any hydrogen bonding are persent in this bonds. So, it is no mare strongest forces.

2. In this bonds, hydrogen Or carbon are directly attached to oxygen. and as a results it is called polar molecules. because it make hydrogen bonds. If any molecules create hydrogen bonds it mean this molecules is called strongest intermolecular forces.

2. What is strongest intermolecular forces in Acetone?

Acetone molecules have weak intermolecular forces. that is called dispersion forces. acetone molecules are attraction by London dispersion forces and dipole dipole interaction.

this molecules has dipole, so it is create dipole dipole forces. there is no hydrogen bonding because hydrogen bonding is not directly attachment to oxygen. So, if this molecules has no hydrogen bonding it will be weak intermolecular forces.

3. Why acetone create weak intermolecular forces?

Yes it is true, Acetone has weak intermolecular forces because there is no hydrogen bonding persent in this molecules. So it create weak intermolecular forces. if any molecules has no hydrogen bonding. So, it indicate weakest intermolecular forces.

but if i m talking about Water molecules this molecules create hydrogen bonding. because hydrogen are attached to oxygen. and hydrogen have positive charge and oxygen have negative charge. it attack properly. as a result, it give strongest intermolecular forces.

4. is acetone more polar then ethanol?

Yes it is true that Acetone has less polar then ethanol. But if I m talking about dipole movment, then acetone has more dipole dipole interaction (dipole movment) compare then ethanol.