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Identify the intermolecular forces present in each of these substances?
There are many substance, such as NH3, HClO, CO, HCl, in which the intermolecular forces is present.
Match these to the correct groups below,
Intermolecular force examples;
- Dipole dipole interaction, Hydrogen bonding, and dispersion forces.
- dipole dipole intraction and dispersion only.
- Dispersion only.
Answer 1. NH3 (ammonia) has dipole dipole intraction, hydrogen bonding, and dispersion forces. because nitrogen have highly electronegative charge compare with hydrogen. it make N-H bonds and NH3 (ammonia) is a polar molecules.
NH3 contain hydrogen bonding, dipole dipole intraction
& NH3 contain London dispersion forces
nh3 intermolecular forces is dipole dipole intraction and hydrogen bonding, hydrogen bonding is more strongest then van der wale forces, the parial positive end of one molecules to the partial negative end of another molecules. So, in this reason we can say that, NH3 has both forces such as, dipole dipole interaction, and hydrogen bonding, and also dispersion forces.
2. CH3Cl – chloromethane (CH3Cl) has dipole dipole and dispersion forces because dipole dipole intraction occur between molecules. partial positive end of one molecules to partial negative end of another molecules.
Ch3Cl – the example of a polar molecules would be CH3Cl or chloromethane. CH3Cl have one atoms of carbon, three atoms of hydrogen, and one atoms of chlorine attached to it.
if you see carefully with structure of CH3Cl then it is clear that carbon and hydrogen bonds are non polar whereas chlorine is a polar molecules.
Chlorine has highly electronegative charge,
therefore, a slightly positive charge on the carbon and slightly negative charge on the chlorine. because chlorine have highly electronegative charge. and it is easy to hold those electron.
3. HClO – hclo intermolecular forces are dipole dipole intraction and hclo is a polar molecules. therefore, it is more attraction between the partial positive end of one molecules to partial negative end of another molecules.
dipole dipole interaction are more attractive among polar molecules. dipole dipole force is formed with the help of electronegative of atoms.
In case of hclo, chlorine has highly electronegative charge compare with hydrogen and oxygen. chlo is dipole dipole intraction. it is more attracted positive end of one molecules to negative end of another molecules.
A (atoms) partial positive end of one molecules to
B (atoms) partial negative end of another molecules.
4. CH4 – Methane is a non polar molecules, methane have not dipole dipole intermolecular forces. because methane is not capable to make hydrogen bonds,
it is make C-H bonds, there is no bonds dipole, it is much weaker then hydrogen bonds. C-H bonds are non polar, and it is not make dipole dipole intermolecular forces.
CH4 have no bonds dipole and dipole dipole intraction. Methane are strongly attached each other. boiling point of methane is -161°C.
5. CO – it is a polar molecules, co intermolecular forces are dipole dipole intraction. But if you talking about N2, it is non polar molecules. these molecules canot be exhibit polar polar intraction.
CO is called Carbon monoxide whereas,
C = Carbon &
O = oxygen
You know that, oxygen have highly electronegative value (3.44) compare with the value of carbon (2.55).
Carbon monoxide are make C-O bonds, and in this case dipoles work in opposite directions, and result is it cancel each other out.