If you are a textile student or a textile company owner or a dyeing master then definitely you must be required to know about what is different types of dyes.

So, in this guide i will help you to understand about different types of dyes.

Do you know, different dyes have different Properties and dyes work according to the materials.

Different types of dyes is used for colouration of textile materials.

So, in this article I will provide valuable information regarding this.

So, hold your seat and be with the end of guide. You could get valuable information out of it.

History of dyes

Types of dyes
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We know that, first egyptins people starts dyeing process for textile materials with different dyes. and Egyptian people produced Different types of dyes before many year ago. this dyes is windly used in textile industry. Different oldest dyes are made from natural source such as plants, animals and some dyes are made from natural plants this dyes is called indigo dyes.

In 1869 an artificial dyes was successfully created. Young scientist or chemist name is William parkin is created synthetic dyes. then this dyes is come around the world and this dye are windly used in textile industry and develop the growth of fabric production.

Germans compny also be produced high production of dyes. it is also be stand for high production of dyes. Specially in a textile industry lots of requirement of dyes for dyeing. but synthatic dyes can cause problems because the solution of synthetic dyes is very dangerous for human body as well as environment. So cleaning of solutions or water must be required before drain out side of industry. So, the wast water is very important to cleaning for environment because wast solutions is very harmful or pollutant around the world. So, cleaning (ETP) process is done with very carefully. Some Chemical or some substance is windly used during textile dyeing process such as alkali, HCl and more.

Different classes or types of dyes explaination

1. Vat dyes

2. Basic dyes

3. Direct dyes

4. Reactive dyes

5. Azo dyes

6. Acid dyes

7. Azoic dyes

8. Sulphur dyes

9. Pigment dyes

10. Mordant dyes

11. Synthatic dyes

12. Disperse dyes

13. Develop dyes

14. Aniline dyes

15. Nitro dyes

16. Anthraquinone dyes

17. Turmeric dyes (Natural dyes)

Vat dyes

Types of dyes
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Vat dye is made from natural plants. So, Vat dye is also called indigo dyes. Vat dye is insoluble in water but soluble by vatting process. Vat dyes is windly used in cellulose materials for dyeing purpose. Vat dye have good overall fastness properties. Vat dye is not directly use for dyeing process. Vatting is must be required before dyeing. Because vat dye is insoluble in water but it Solubilized by vatting process and then dyeing is done.

Basic dyes

Basic dye are insoluble in water but Solubility of this dye in water with the presence of glacial acetic acid. basic dyes are synthatic type class dyes. this dyes are windly used in dyeing of synthatic materials. because this dyes have more affinity for synthetic materials. It’s produced bright shade and high tinctorial values. basic dyes are powerful colouring agent. these dyes are also be called Cationic dye.

Direct dye

Direct dye are highly soluble in water. direct dye are easily dissolve in water. this dyes are windly used in cellulose materials because direct dye have good affinity for cellulosic materials such as Cotton materials. Dyeing is done Alkaline condition. direct dye is easy and cheap process. But in this process after treatment is required after dyeing for improving shade of dyed materials. direct dye are also be dyed wool, silk, Nylon materials. this dyes gives good fastness property.

Reactive dyes

Reactive dyes are soluble in water. Reactive dyes are also more stable for cellulosic materials. this dyes have also be high affinity for cellulosic materials as well as for proteins fibres and also be polymide fibres. this dyes is easy to make a Covelant linkage with the fibres and work as a integral part of fibre. this dye also be use for dyeing of Cotton,wool, and silk materials.

Azo dyes

Azo dyes are Soluble in water. azo dyes are chemically class of dyes and this dyes are organic compound. Azo dyes are contain functional group (N=N) . this dyes are bound to Aromatic ring. these ring are break down with high temp. these dyes are also be use for dyeing of cellulose materials as well as proteins fibres. azo dyes are produced strong colour with good depth of shade on to the materials. Azo dyes are produced Different strong colour such as acid orange 7, direct blue 15, methyl yellow and acid red.

Some azo dyes are harmful for skin but not all azo dyes. this dyes is easy to absorbed on skin during dyeing so doing work with very carefully. Because if azo dyes are contact on skin then it may chances of skin cancer.

Acid dyes

Acid dye are highly soluble in water compare to the basic dyes. Acid dyes are windly used for proteins fibres such as wool, silk, acrylic, nylon. Proteins fibres contain Sulphonic acid groups. The function of Sulphonic acid groups is to improve or increase the Solubility in water. And it’s gives proper dye molecules and this molecules make negative charge and proteins fibres are make positive charge. This both make more interacts to dye property. In this process, some special force is applied during dyeing such as Vander walls force and hydrogen bond. This force is help during dyeing. and get even dyeing.

Azoic dyes

Azoic dyes are Contain azo group (N=N). Azoic dyes are synthatic types dyes. Its made in the form of readymade. azo dyes are produced coloured substance by the reaction of two components such as,

(1) Coupling compound (napthol)

(2) Di – azo Component ( salt diazo)

Azoic dyes are Colour Component but it is insoluble in water. and azoic dyes are gives exllent washing fastness property.

Sulphur dyes

Sulphur dyes are in soluble in water. Sulphur dyeing are more suitable for cellulosic materials and denim fabric. Sulphur dyes are produced strong deep shade. and this dyes are also produced Different colours such as red, yellow, orange. Sulphur dyes are converted to leco form with the help of dilute aqueous (Na2S) before dyeing. Also be use for production of heavy materials such as rubber materials. this dyes are also be used for textile printing process but it is costly process.

Pigment dyes

Pigment is not a dye, pigment is a Chemical substance which is windly use after the pigment dyeing for improving the fastness properties. Pigment easily panetrate on to the materials with the help of binders. So, binder is must be required in pigment dyeing. now a days pigment dyeing is also carried out in lots of industry.

Mordant dyes

Mordant dyes are acid dyes in which contains metal atom it can be insert in dye bath during dyeing. Mordant dyes have good affinity for proteins fibres such as silk, and wool.

Mordanting is must be required for synthatic dyestuff, some synthatic dyes are generally in use that required mordanting for proper exhaustion and proper pantration. this is the reason it produces better shade on to the materials. But if dyes are made from natural plants then mordanting is not required. Mordant dyes required a mordant in their uses, it is easy to deposition in the form of colour.

Synthatic dyes

Synthetic dye are derived from organically. Synthetic dyes are produced wind range of colours. Synthetic dyes are made from Chemical Compound but it can be harmful to human body. For example, synthatic dyes are produced Different types dyes, such as Vat dye, direct dye, basic dyes or more. Water pollution and untreated dye solution is also be harmful for human body and also for environmental.so ETP is must be required for cleaning of dyeing solutions and then drain water base solutions for out of industry.

Disperse dye

Disperse dye are insoluble in water. This dyes are easy to diffuse in to the fibres Because disperse dye have very small dye particals. Disperse dye are windly used in synthatic materials such as polyester, nylon, and blend materials such as polyester/cotton. disperse dye is given good shade for synthetic materials. Some Chemical substance is used in disperse dye such dispersing agent it’s help to improve the depth of shade on the materials. this dyes have very small dye particals compare to the other dyes, this is the reason to easy to diffuse and easy to panatrate on to the materials. and it gives good shade or good colour on to the synthatic materials. this dyes are also be dyed hydrophobic materials such as nylon, acrylic.

Developed dyes

Developed dyes are made from developer with the help of some after treatment process. The main role of develop dyes are to develop depth of shade on to the materials. For example, develop dyes are “direct dyes.” this dyes is also be developed dyes.

Aniline dyes

Aniline dyes are derived chemically from aniline. Coal – tar distillation product. For example…. inks, dyes and other uses.

Nitro dyes

Nitro dye are Aromatic Compound types dyes. Nitro dyes are produced strong colour with the help of nitro group and hydroxy group. nitro dyes also be contain chlorine and nitro dyes are more stable with the presence of nitro and hydroxy group.

Anthraquione dyes

Anthraquinone dyes are synthatic class types dyes. This dyes are found mostly synthetically. This dyes have carbonyl group (>C=O). anthraquinone dyes are Colourless but red to blue is found from uses hydroxy or amino group. Anthraquinone dyes can be found in natural dyes as well as synthatic dyes. Some dyes are also be know as anthraquinone types dyes such as Mordant, vat and also disperse dye.

Turmeric (natural dyes)

Turmeric dyes are made from naturally. turmeric dyeing is windly carried out for dyeing of cellulosic materials. these dyes are used in most of the ancient civilization, such as India, Egypt or more. dyes are mostly used in dyeing, Printing and painting in India. turmeric dyes are extensively used as a Cosmetic for women. Such as Heena, mahandi, and more. dyes are mostly used in food and confectionery. all indian people is used turmeric in food. Because it is very important for indian life.

Turmeric is also be used in textile industry. Turmeric powder have ability to dyed cellulose materials. In case of turmeric dyeing first mordanting of turmeric is required then dyeing is done. Its produce pale yellow shade. this dyes is produced good fastness property. and this process is low moderate cost.

Application of dyes;

1. Vat dyes; vat dyes is used for dyeing of natural fibres or man-made fibers such as,

Cotton, silk, wool (natural fibres) and viscose ( man-made fibers)

2. Basic dyes; similarly, this dyes is also used for dyeing. Such as,

Acrylic, Acrylic cotton, Acrylic wool, wool , jute etc.

3. Direct dye; direct dye is windly use for dyeing purpose of natural as well as man-made fibers. Such as

Cotton (natural), viscose (man-made fibers)

4. Acid dye; this dye is used for dyeing of natural fibers as well as man-made fibers such as,

nylon (man-made fibers), and silk wool (natural fibers)

5. Reactive dyes; it is windly used for dyeing of such type of fibers.

Silk, wool, viscose, nylon.

6. Sulphur dyes;

Cotton, Viscose

7. Disperse dyes;

Nylon, polyester, Acrylic, tri-acetate

8. Mordant dyes;

Cotton, Silk, wool

9. Pigment dyes;

Cotton, and viscose etc

10. Azoic dyes;

Cotton, viscose and more

11. Mineral dye;

Cotton, wool, silk

12. Aniline black; Cotton

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fabric dyeing process and flow chart.


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