# What is the Concepts of Formal Charge?

Formal charge of nh4 molecules is +1

Hello, reders welcome to “textilesgreen” for another fresh article. today we will discuss of basic concepts of formal charge of atoms.

lets know with example,

What is the Valency of sulphur?

## What is Formal Charge?

Formal charge is the charge on any atoms in a molecules, assuming that electrons are shared equally in all chemical bonds between atoms. regardless of relative, electronegativity is called as formal charge.

It is one type of charge on different atoms in a molecules, assuming that all electron give an bond are shared equally“.

lets know with example :-

Ammonium ion has a formal charge of + 1

Let’s know how to find F. C. of nh4 molecules.

first, draw the structure of nh4 molecules

According to this structure, we can see that there are electron are formed in this molecules. and four bonds are also formed in this molecules. but unpair electron is 0.

lets know, how to find formal charge with the help of formula.

You know that, formal charge is expressed by

F.C. = V – N – B/2

where,

V = no of electrons in valence shell of atom.

N = no of bond pair electrons of that atom × 1.

B/2 = no of loan pair × 2.

F.C. = no of electrons in valence shell of atom – no of bond pair electrons of that atom × 1 – no of loan pair of atom × 2

It is also denoted with this form,

F.C. = V.e- – B.P – l.P × 2

F. C. of N in nh4 = 5 – 4 – 0 ×2

= +1

Formal charge of hydrogen H = 1 – 1 – 0×2

= 0

therefore, we can say that in case of nh4 molecules, the formal charge of N is +1 and the formal charge of H is 0.

### Formal charge Formula

Mathematically, it can be expressed by following formula.

F.C. = [ no of valence electron] – [ no of bond pair electron] – [no of loan pair electron × 2]

We can write this way also,

F.C. = V. electron – B. P – l. P × 2

Where,

V = no of valence electron of atom in a molecules.

N = No of bond pair electron in that atom.

B/2 = No of loan paired electron in that atom × 2.

### Examples of formal charge

Here, there are different examples for formal charge. Such as,

1. Hydronium ion (HO3)

Formal charge on oxygen atom is,

F.C = V . e- – B. P – l. P × 2

where,

V – no of electron in valence shell of atom.

N – no of bond paired electrons of that atom.

B – no of loan pair electron of atom.

Now,

F.C = 6 – 3 – 1× 2

F.C. = 6 – 3 – 2 = +1

Formal charge of oxygen atom is +1

1. O3 (ozone)

First draw the Lewis structure of ozone (O3) molecules, according to this structure we are find the F. charge of that atom.

According to formula, we can find the Formal charge on oxygen atom (O3).

1. F. C. – V – N – B/2, 6 – 2 – 2×2 = 0
2. F. C. – V – N – B/2, 6 – 3 – 1×2 = +1
3. F. C. – V – N – B/2, 6 – 1 – 3×2 = -1
1. HNO3

First draw the Lewis structure of that atom. according to Lewis structure we can find the value of formal charge.

lets find the formal charge of that atom.

According to the formula,

F.C – V. electron – B.P ×1 – l.P × 2

Now, According to the formula, we can find the value of formal charge of that atom.

Formal charge – V. electron – B.P × 1 – l.P × 2

Formal charge = number of valence electrons – bond paired ×1 – loan paired × 2

follow this formula we get, the value of F. C. of H, O, N O, O. in HNO3 molecules.

1. F. C. = 1 – 1 – 0 = 0
2. F. C. = 6 – 2 – 2×2 = 0
3. F. C. = 5 – 4 – 0×2 = +1
4. F. C. = 6 – 2 – 2×2 = 0
5. F. C. = 6 – 1 – 3×2 = -1

#### 1. What is formal charge?

If we are talking about F.C. whenever a covalent bond is formed between any two atoms. You must have seen that, the formation of covalent bond and charge between two atoms.

When a covalent bond is formed between two atoms, charge is also formed on the atom at the same time. it can be positive (+) or it can be also be negative (-). It may be +1 , -1, +2, -2. this phenomenon is known as formal charge.

the formula of formal charge is,

Formal charge – number of valence electrons – bond paired × 1 – loan paired × 2

formal charge of any atom in a molecules can be calculate by the following equation.

F.C. = V – N – B/2

This way we can calculate the formal charge for any atoms.

#### 2. What is the Formal charge of carbon monoxide?

Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon and one oxygen. the chemical formula of carbon monoxide is CO.

the F. charge of carbon monoxide is find out from this formula such as,

Formal charge = no of valence electrons – bonds paired × 1 – no laon paired × 2.

Here first find the formal charge of carbon and then oxygen.

• the number of valence electrons of carbon is 4.

• number of bonds paired is 3.

• number of loan paired is 1.

Apply the formula, we get the value of formal charge of carbon in carbon monoxide, as shown in figure.

Similarlly, we can calculate the F.C of oxygen in carbon monoxide. as shown in figure.

#### 3. What is basic concepts of coordinate bond?

A coordinate bond is also know as covalent bond. you know that, a covalent bond is formed by two atoms sharing a one pair of electrons. and this sharing of electrons are attracted by both of nuclei.

Covalent bond is formed by sharing of pair of electrons in which by sharing of one pair of electrons, it help to complete octal of both atoms.

#### 4. Which molecules have low formal charge and have more stable?

First, i m talking about H2O molecules, you know that water (h2o) is neutral molecules. have low formal charge and more stable. In h2o molecules, oxygen atom has negative charge where as both hydrogens has positive charge, this relation is also know as hydrogen bonding. due to this cause, water is more stabilized.

Similarly, if we are talking about NaCl molecules, this molecules has more stability. but in solid state. In this molecules, Na has the formal positive charge whereas Cl has the formal negative charge. due to this this molecules has highly stability.

According to both examples, we can say that, formal charge do not lead to instability.